Within weeks of his election, Lincoln’s local popularity—already low—plummeted, as Southern secession and business stagnation engulfed the city in gloom. Many New Yorkers gave Lincoln a cold shoulder when he visited on his way to the inauguration. The attack on Fort Sumter, however, sparked a patriotic frenzy in New York. Residents rallied behind Lincoln, oversubscribing the enrollments in volunteer regiments, contributing thousands of dollars in military supplies, and pledging to defend the honor of the Stars and Stripes. Such enthusiasm did not last, except among African-American New Yorkers who were not yet allowed to enlist in the army. Following the disastrous defeat at the first battle of Bull Run, visions of a short war crumbled. Over the next year, bad news—military failure, corruption in war contracting, and economic distress—constantly bedeviled Lincoln’s administration. New York grew increasingly pessimistic about the administration’s ability to wage war and manage the economy.